Auguste Rodin brought the public sculpture into the modern era. Rodin's objective was to be consistent with nature. His ability to convey movement and to show the inner feelings of the men and women he portrayed,and the brilliant technical skills of his light-catching modeling, and his extraordinary use of similar figures in different mediums, have established him as one of the greatest sculptors of all time.

Rodin Works: The Burghers of Calais

Rodin Works: The Burghers of Calais

First maquette, Cantor CollectionRodin's 'Burghers of Calais' tell the story of the six distinguished citizens of the French coastal town Calais, who in 1347, during the Hundred-Years War with England, exposed themselves volunteerly into captivity of King Edward III to save their town from extermination.

Rodin won the commission for the monument of the town Calais in January 1885 after his first maquette, distinguishing itself from the more conventional designs presented by his five competitors, had been approved by the Committee in November 1884. Propelled by his ambition to win this public commission, the sculptor promised to deliver "six sculptures for the price of one".

Rodin described his intentions as follows:

"It is the subject itself which (...) imposes a heroic vision of all six figures being sacrificed to one single communicative expression and feeling. The pedestal is triumphal, it has the rudiments of an arch of triumph intended to uphold, not a quadriga, but human patriotism, self-abnegation and virtue."

First maquette, detail.Rodin's direct literary source is the chronological receit of historian Jean Froissart (ca. 1333-1410), describing how King Edward demanded the six citizens to appear bareheaded, only dressed with a shirt, with a rope around their necks and the keys for the town in their hands.

Instead of focussing on the first of the citizens who had volunteered, Eustache de Saint-Pierre, Rodin decided to portray six individuals. Instead of idealising the dignity of their heroic sacrifice, he revealed their misery and inner doubt and showed them in rough sack-like clothes. Instead of setting up a traditional pyramidal composition, he placed the six men on the same level, each of them occupied by his own personal conflict: 'Pierre de Wissant', Pierre de Wiessant. Photo: Bodmerwho, on his slow procession towards death, turns round and lifts his right arm back, just like setting free a bird (Rilke); 'Jean d'Aire', on the other side of the monument, is standing upright with clenched hands but stoically reflecting his fate.

To reach a maximum of individuality, Rodin studied each of the six personalities seperately in different poses, dressed and undressed. Being convinced of his artistic conception, Jean d'Aire, clay, 1886. Photo: BodmerRodin refused to serve given expectations. The second maquette of the Calais Monument was presented in July/August 1885, this time with a very low pedestal, showing six separate freestanding figures at one-third height. This time, the composition met critique, but Rodin insisted it had not been presented to negotiate a completely new design.

Since 1885 he mainly worked on 'The Burghers of Calais' and even though a financial crisis in Calais hindered the tasks of the committee and the realisation of the monument was not certain anymore, Rodin finished the group in the following years. In January 1886, three figures had been modeled in clay. In May 1887, three life-size characters were ready in plaster. The same year, Rodin showed these three completed figures in the Gallery Georges Petit; at the exhibition Rodin-Monet in the same gallery in 1889, he showed the complete group.

In 1892, the committee decided to finance the monument finally by a national subscription and a lottery. Only in the year 1895, more than ten years after Rodin had presented the first maquette, 'The Burghers of Calais' were inaugurated at the entrance of the Jardin du Front Sud, on a pedestal designed by the city architect Decroix, with an octagonal iron gate around it.

Rodin resented this installation and returned to his previous proposal as worded in his letter of 8 December 1893 to the Mayor of Calais, Omer Dewavrin, his Burghers could be mounted on a very low, "but impressive" basis on the Place d´Armes in the centre of Calais:

"..... very low to enable the spectators to penetrate the heart of the subject, like entombments in churches, where the group is almost at ground level. (...) In this way, the group becomes more familiar and plunges the viewers deeper into the tragedy and sacrifice of the drama."

In his later conversations with Gsell, Rodin even complained the "ugly and superfluous" pedestal of Decroix had been forced upon him, although he would have preferred the six Burghers to be anchored into the pavement directly – this way it would look as if the six men would walk between the inhabitants of the city.

In fact, the sculptor's grudge was mainly caused by the refusal of the Calais City Council to position his Monument either in front of the Town Hall or along the Route Nationale in the neighbourhood of the Pont Richelieu – an alternative location he had suggested. He felt the location in front of the public gardens was too much offside, as if the City was ashamed to present its brave citizens in their state of humiliation and despair – a suspicion he shared with Sir Schomberg McDonnel, Secretary of the London Office of Works, who had come to view the group in Calais and mocked Rodin's work had been installed before the background of a public urinal and a washing room.

As Thomas Appels demonstrates, it would be wrong to conclude, though, that Rodin would reject the idea of a pedestal altogether – his main concern was to reach an installation that would allow for the highest aesthetic effect. Whereas a low placement would bring the suffering of 'The Burghers' closer to theThe Burghers on their way to Rome for a restauration, Thursday, March 8, 2001, at the Calais Town Hall spectator and invite to direct identification, a higher position would produce a good contrast between the lively contours and the sky. Accordingly, the Copenhagen cast of the Burgers was put on a 1.40 meter high base, the London version in the Victoria Towers Garden even became a five meter high pedestal, like the Gattamelata statue by Donatello in Padua. Before, Rodin had raised a wooden platform on his Meudon property, to test the effect of such a high position. His revolutionary idea of a very low placement was only realised in Calais in 1924, after the sculptor had died and the exceptional quality of his disquieting - but meanwhile widely celebrated - monument was better understood.

Thomas Appel, Die Bürger von Calais, Auguste Rodins Intentionen zu Aufstellung und Sockel, p. 70ff.

The Burghers of Calais in the Kunstmuseum Basel, bronzeAltogether, four life-size bronze casts were produced and erected during Rodin's lifetime: Calais, Copenhagen, London and Mariemont in Belgium. The Ca' Pesaro Museum in Venice owns a rare over-life-size plaster group. As a separate project, The 'Head of Pierre de Wiessant' was enlarged to monumental dimensions; the hand of the same figure was re-employed in 'The Hand of God'.

The Burghers were also cast and distributed as single figures. It should be noted that the names of the characters as we know and use them today, were only attached by George Grappe, Curator of the Musée Rodin. During Rodin's life, they were referred to as 'The Man with the Key', etc.

Between 1895 and 1905, LeBossé produced reduced versions of five of the six 'Burghers'; the figure of Pierre de Wiessant was never reduced, although Rodin intended to reproduce the entire group in this smaller format. The first examples of these small 'Burghers' were ordered by the banker Joanny Peytel; subsequently, this edition was in great demand among collectors, who now were able to purchase the famous 'Burghers' for an affordable price, in a size that fitted their private housing. [Anna Tahinci, Ph. D. thesis on Rodin's Collectors, p. 39] A selection of these small 'Burghers' was represented in an exhibition of the Glaskastenmuseum in Marl, Germany.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (supplied by The National Gallery of Art, Washington):

Bartlett, Truman H. "Auguste Rodin, Sculptor." American Architect and Building News (19 January-15 June 1889): 250.
Geffroy, Gustave. "Le statuaire Rodin." Les Lettres et les Arts (1 September 1889). In Vilain, Jacques.
Claude Monet-Auguste Rodin: Centennaire de l'exposition de 1889. Exh. cat. Musée Rodin, Paris, 1989: 64-65. Mirbeau, Octave. "Auguste Rodin." Le Journal (2 June 1895).
Rilke, Rainer Maria. Auguste Rodin. Trans. in G.
Craig Houston. Rodin and Other Prose Pieces. London, 1986: 35-39.
Gsell, Paul, ed. "Auguste Rodin." L'Art. Paris, 1911: 102-116, 188.
Grappe, Georges. Catalogue du Musée Rodin. Paris, 1927: 51-53.
Cladel, Judith. Rodin: The Man and His Art. Trans. S.K. Star. New York, 1917: 152-166.
Grappe, Georges. Catalogue du Musée Rodin. 5th ed. Paris, 1944: 59-62.
Elsen, Albert E. Rodin. New York, 1963: 70-87. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 168.
Descharnes, Robert, and Jean-François Chabrun.
Auguste Rodin. Lausanne, 1967: 106-115.
Spear, Athena Tacha. Rodin Sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1967: 40-47. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations.
National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 148, repro.
Goldscheider, Cécile. "La Nouvelle Salle des Bourgeois de Calais au Musée Rodin." La Revue du Louvre 21 (1971): 169, pl. 3.
Tancock, John. The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia, 1976: 376-402.
de Caso, Jacques, and Patricia B. Sanders. Rodin's Sculpture: A Critical Study of the Spreckels Collection. San Francisco, 1977: 204-225.
Judrin, Claudie, Monique Laurent, and Dominique Viéville. Auguste Rodin: Le Monument des Bourgeois de Calais (1884-1895) dans les collections du... Exh. cat. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Calais; Musée Rodin, Paris. Paris, 1977. McNamara, Mary Jo, and Albert E. Elsen. Rodin's Burghers of Calais. New York and Los Angeles, 1977.
Lampert, Catherine. Rodin: Sculpture & Drawings. Exh. cat. Hayward Gallery, London, 1986: 101-115.
Miller, Joan Vita, and Gary Marotta. Rodin: The B. Gerald Cantor Collection. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1986: 41-71.
Le Nouëne, Patrick, and Hélène Pinet. Auguste Rodin: Le Monument des Bourgeois de Calais et ses photographes. Exh. cat. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Calais; Musée Faure, Aix-les-Bains. Calais, 1987. Beausire, Alain.
Quand Rodin Exposait. Paris, 1988: 95, 96, 98, 100, 105, 116, 123, 151, 157, 158, 164, 192, 201, 205, 210, 212, 213, 217, 220, 231, 237, 250, 251, 253, 260, 266, 357, 359, 366.
Fonsmark, Anne-Birgitte. Rodin: La collection du Brasseur Carl Jacobsen à la Glypthothèque. Copenhagen, 1988: 111-115.
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 304, repro.
Butler, Ruth. Rodin. The Shape of Genius. New Haven and London, 1993: 199-213. Sculpture: An Illustrated Catalogue.
National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1994: 200, repro.
Levkoff, Mary L. Rodin and His Time: The Cantor Gifts to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Los Angeles, 1994: 92-101.
Porter, John R., and Yves Lacasse. Rodin à Québec. Quebec, 1998: 95-105.
Butler, Ruth, and Suzanne Glover Lindsay, with Alison Luchs, Douglas Lewis, Cynthia J. Mills, and Jeffrey Weidman. European Sculpture of the Nineteenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 2000: 345-348, color repro.

Rodin Works: Ugolino and his Sons

Rodin Works: ugolino and his sons

Ugolino and his sons as part of the Gates of Hell. Photo: Prof. HoweIn Book XXXIII of the 'Divine Comedy', Dante presents the story of Ugolino della Gherardesca, Count of Donoratico, head of a faction of the pro-Papal Guelphs in Pisa during the 13th Century. In order to seize power in the town governed by Nino of Gallura, head of the opposing faction, Ugolino had entered a pact with Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini, leader of the Ghibelline (pro-Holy Roman Emperor) faction. In the summer of the year 1288 Nino and his men were expelled from the city.

When a new Pope appeared on the scene, Ubaldini denounced the alliance and - now that the Guelphs were weakened - accused Ugolino of corruption. Charging the Count for having assisted Florence and Lucca to win back some towns that had previously been conquered by Pisa, he brought up the population against Ugolino. The tyrant along with two sons and two grandsons (or nephews, in other versions) were imprisoned in the Gualandi Tower overlooking Pisa's central Piazza dei Cavalieri. In March 1289, on the arrival of Count Guido da Montefeltro (described in Canto XVII), as Captain of Pisa, they were starved to death. Since then the tower has been called Torre della Fame, the Tower of Hunger.

According to the popular tale, Ugolino, racked with hunger, ate the flesh of his children as last survivor. By now, scientific research, based on excavations in the Gherardesca family tomb, has questioned if the 'Cannibal Count' actually consumed human flesh during his last days [Read more].

Scaramuzza, 'Ugolino', 1859In the 'Divine Comedy', Dante meets Ugolino in the lowest region of Hell, gnawing the skull of his former friend, then fiend Ubaldini: because both men were guilty of treachery, they were condemned to eternal punishment in the ninth Circle of Hell, reserved for traitors. Dante hears Ugolino's tragic account how after two days, he had bitten his hands in remorse and despair while his sons - thinking he was doing so for hunger - had offered their own young bodies as a meal to him:

Come un poco di raggio si fu messo
nel doloroso carcere, ed io scorsi
per quattro visi il mio aspetto stesso,

ambo le mani per dolor mi morsi.
Ed ei, pensando ch' io 'l fessi per voglia
di manicar, di subito levorsi,

e disser: `Padre, assai ci fia men doglia,
se tu mangi di noi: tu ne vestisti
queste misere carni, e tu le spoglia.'

When a small ray was sent into
the doleful prison, and I discerned in their
four faces the aspect of my own,

I bit on both my hands for grief. And they,
thinking that I did it from desire of
eating, of a sudden rose up,

and said: 'Father, it will give us much less
pain, if thou eat of us: thou put upon us
this miserable flesh, and do thou strip it off.'

[Read full text and English translation]

'Ugolino' created by Carpeaux , Metropolitan Museum New York, 1863 This is the scene Carpeaux - like other artists before him - had selected for his sculpture 'Ugolino', exhibited at the Salon of 1863. In the same year, Rodin had joined the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs and - impressed by Carpeaux's work - had tried to socialize with the successful sculptor, who did not return his sympathy.

Ugolino' (1806) by Johann Heinrich Fussli (1741-1825), Kunsthaus Zürich Almost surely inspired by Carpeaux's design with a sitting Ugolino, Rodin began his first draft of 'Ugolino and his sons' probably already in 1876. Rodin made over 30 sketches ; two of these drawings, probably dating from 1879-1880, show a seated Ugolino with one of his sons lying across his lap. Claudie Judrin and subsequently Albert Elsen point to Michelangelo's Pietà, viewed by Rodin in 1875, as an art-historical reference and interpret these sketches as evidence of Buonarotti's strong influenceMichelangelo, Pietà, c. 1498-99, marble, Rome, St. Peter. The painting 'Ugolino' (1806) by Johann Heinrich Fussli (1741-1825), now in the Kunsthaus Zürich, proves that at least Rodin was not the only artist recurring to the Pietà concept for a portrait of the starving Count.

After his journey to Italy, where he had seen, among others, the famous 'Laocoon' group inLaocoon group, Rome, Vatican Museum Rome - another work dealing with the cruel death of a father and his two sons - Rodin destroyed the seated version of his 'Ugolino' sculpture; the plaster was reduced to a headless fragment, that survived in this form and was shown again in Rodin's private exhibition pavillon at the Place d´Alma in 1900. This sitting character with its peculiarly crossed legs can be considered the morphological forerunner of the 'Thinker', Rodin and Seated Ugolino at the Alma Pavilion, 1900 which Rodin developed around 1880. Other relevant studies of male seated figures can be found in Rodin's 'Vase of the Titans', created during his employment at the Sèvres Porcelain Manufactury.

Whereas the third maquette for 'The Gates of Hell' still shows a seated Ugolino, Rodin's following attempts present the desperate sinner at the climax of the drama as related to Dante:

Poscia che fummo al quarto dì venuti,
Gaddo mi si gittò disteso a' piedi,
dicendo: `Padre mio, chè non m' aiuti

Quivi morì; e come tu mi vedi,
vid' io cascar li tre ad uno ad uno
tra il quinto dì e il sesto: ond' io mi diedi

già cieco a brancolar sopra ciascuno,
e due dì li chiamai poi che fur morti;
poscia, più che il dolor, potè il digiuno."

When we had come to the fourth day, Gaddo
threw himself stretched out at my feet,
saying: 'My father! why don't you help me?'

There he died; and as thou seest me, saw
I the three fall one by one, between the fifth
day and the sixth: whence I betook me,

already blind, to groping over each, and for
two days called them, after they were dead;
then fasting had more power than grief."

[Read full text and English translation]

Ugolino plaster, Musée d'Orsay. Photo: Prof. HoweInstead of repeating the traditional pyramidal construction, employed by Carpeaux, Rodin around 1881-82 introduced a daring horizontal composition showing the exhausted old man on all fours, blindly groping for his suffering progenity. The plaster in the Musée d'Orsay shows Ugolino still with a raised head; in the final version, included in 'The Gates of Hell', the sculptor goes the last step: the Count is facing down like an animal, no longer able to maintain a reflective distance; as a last human gesture, his left arm is supporting the head of his dying son, the other son still clinging to his father's back.'Ugolino', final version

Trumann Bartlett - a sculptor himself - recognized the radical pathetic quality of this composition:

"Rodin goes at once to the depths of the whole tragedy. The youths have fallen to the ground, and Ugolino, seeing them so, and feeling the full terror of his situation, throws his own emaciated carcass down and crawls over the body of his offspring like a beast benumbed with rage and famine... The impression made by this being is so forcible that it seems more like the half-conscious response of an unburied corpse to the trumpet of the resurrection... It is the horror of the door" [Bartlett]

 'Head of Sorrow' The group, first placed on the left panel of the 'The Gates of Hell', around 1887 was moved to the right wing, where it remained.

Rodin himself was so convinced of his creation, that he detached the head of one of the sons, and enlarged it seperately in different media; this 'Head of Sorrow' was used for Paolo in 'Fugit Amor'; it also was exhibited as an indepent sculpture and carved in marble.

Assemblage of the 'Ugolino' character with 'The Tragic Muse', Photo :1896During the 1890's, Rodin created an assemblage of the 'Ugolino' character with 'The Tragic Muse'.

In 1906, he started with the enlargement of the 'Ugolino' group. René Chéruy related how Rodin had invited Pignatelli, who had been his model for the first version, to come and see him on that occasion. Upon arrival at the Villa des Brillants where Rodin was having luncheon with guests, old Pignatelli announced himself to Rodin's confused housekeeper as 'St John the Baptist'. Rodin, who had forgotten the appointment, understood some mentally insane beggar had knocked on his door and ordered to give the poor man some food, till a persistent Pugnatelli could convince the maid and Rodin he was the sculptor's former model.

Rodin Works: The Thinker

Rodin Works: The Thinker

Already in the first year of working on 'The Gates of Hell', Rodin modeled the central figure of this great composition: 'The Thinker'. Thinker, small version, bronze, Cantor Foundation As an independent work it became perhaps the best-known sculpture of all time.

Seated on the tympanon of 'The Gates of Hell', 'The Thinker' watches the whole scene of the Inferno, brooding in contemplation. His athletic body is twisted in tension from his head down to his curled toes, suggesting a tough intellectual struggle. While the right muscular arm supports the pensive head, the left hand is open, as if ready grasp the reality of his vision and to act.

Already in 1885, Mirbeau noted that both the title and the subject of 'The Thinker' reminded of Michelangelo's 'Il Penserioso' on the tomb of Guiliano di Medici.

[Octave Mirbeau, 'Auguste Rodin', in La France, Paris, 18 Febr. 1885
For complete text, click here: Page 1+2 Page 3+4 ]

Originally, 'The Thinker' - exhibited in Copenhagen in 1888 as 'The Poet' - was to represent Dante Alighieri, the author of the Divina Commedia, who - according to a popular anecdote - also used to sit and think on a rock in Florence called Sasso di Dante, watching the Baptistry. As a portrait of Dante, 'The Thinker' symbolized the intellectual power that created the dramatic world depicted in 'The Gates':

The large plaster cast of the Thinker in Poznan"In front of this Porte [Rodin explained to a journalist at the turn of the century], but on a rock, Dante was to be seated in profound meditation, conceiving the plan of his poem. Behind him, there was Ugolino, Francesca, Paolo, all the characters of the Divine Comedy. But something came of this idea. Gaunt, ascetic in his straight robe, my Dante, seperated from the ensemble, would have had no meaning. Still inspired by my original idea, I conceived of another Thinker, a naked man crouched on a rock against which his feet are contracted. Fist pressed against his teeth, he sits lost in contemplation. His fertile thoughts slowly unfalled in his imagination. He is not a dreamer; he is a creator."

[Marcelle Adam, Le Penseur, in: Gil Blas, Paris, 7 July 1904, quoted by Grunfeld, chapter 8, p. 191]

Interpreted this way, 'The Thinker' was detached from his personal connection with Dante and now is seen to represent the power of thought and mental creativity more generally. 'The Thinker' not only confirms Dante´s high reputation as the embodiment of Plato's ideal of the artist-philosopher: on a more abstract level, Rodin's work associates the creative qualities of artistic genius with the ability to understand and judge society from a higher standpoint. Because of his central place high above the turmoil of the sinners, Elsen even draws a parallel to the figure of Christ in the Judgement Seat.Another identification of the artist with Christ can be found in 'Christ and Mary Magdalene'; in 'The Hand of God', finally, the creative power of the Deity is directly associated with that of the sculptor.

The elevated position of 'The Thinker' also caused Rodin to enlarge the shoulders and arms, so that the proportions seem balanced when looking up to the figure from the ground. Later, when 'The Thinker' was enlarged and exhibited as a separate work, its lower placement led to an irritating impression of top-heaviness.

Still during Rodin's life-time, several critics speculated on the question, what 'The Thinker' was actually thinking about. With the growing popularity of the socialist movement, 'The Thinker' was sometimes interpreted as a working class hero, rising from the fetters of the material world to the heights of class consciousness:

Democracy has had its heroes and its statues. But these heroes were often no more than bourgeois. (...)
The Thinker of Mr Rodin is, on the contrary, the anonymous unknown worker, the first to come from among the proletariat, whose native homeliness the artist has exaggerated, again according to the exigencies and manner of his art (...)
The proletariat will be flattered ... to see itself endowed with thought - the proletariat that is so often accused of having only blindness and instincts.

'Le Penseur' de Rodin, L´Univers et le Monde, quoted by Albert Elsen, in: Rodin´s Thinker and the Dilemmas of Modern Public Sculpture, Yale University Press, p. 129

Rodin and Seated Ugolino at the Alma Pavilion, 1900Morphologically spoken, Rodin´s 'Thinker' is the successor of the torso of the 'Seated Ugolino', which Rodin created during his years in Belgium. Around 1876, Rodin created a further study of a seated man, which can be seen as a another predecessor to 'The Thinker' (plaster, Nelson-Atkins Museum). Finally, the giants at the base of the 'Vase of the Titans' deal with the same complex task of endowing seated heroes with an expression of activity and strength. In 1901, Rodin recurred to 'The Thinker' while creating 'The American Athlete'.

The first exhibited version of 'The Thinker' – 1888 in Copenhagen – in plaster was 71.5 cm high. Only in 1902, when Rodin began to have some of his most popular sculptures enlarged by his helper Henri LeBossé, a monumental version of 'The Thinker' was created as well, ca. 1.84 m high. The enlargement was completed by the end of 1903 and shown in the Spring Salon in Paris 1904. In the Revue blue of 17 Dec. 1904, Gustave Geffroy commented:"If he were to stand up and walk, the ground under his feet would tremor and scores of soldiers would part for him."

The first colossal bronze cast was produced by the young, ambitious founder Hébrard, who promised Rodin to deliver a cast made after the prestigeous lost wax method, for the price of a sand cast. This first cast was shipped to the Louisiana World Exhibition and shown to the public, till Rodin began to doubt the quality of the patina and sent a plaster cast to Mississippi to replace the metal sculpture, which was eventually bought by Mr Walker.

In Paris, Gabriel Mourey, publisher of the New magazine Les Arts de la Vie, took the initiative to organize a public subscription with the aim to present a monumental bronze cast "to the people of Paris", to be placed in front of the Panthéon. As a maquette, a bronze coloured plaster was installed there; on 16 January 1905, this provisory sculpture was destroyed by a fanatic, called Poitron, who claimed the thinking poet was mocking at him.

In April 1906, the final bronze version was installed and remained in front of the Panthéon for 16 years. In 1922, the statue with its pedestal was transported to the garden of the recently opened Musée Rodin, allegedly because it would be an obstacle during public ceremonies.

By now, there are over 20 examples of the colossal bronze cast, placed in cities all over the world. One of the casts, manufactured by the Alexis Rudier Foundry, is placed next to the tomb of Rodin and his wife Rose Beuret in Meudon.

For a detailed overview of all monumental plaster and bronze examples, see

BIBLIOGRAPHY (supplied by The National Gallery of Art, Washington):

Bartlett, Truman H. "Auguste Rodin, Sculptor." American Architect and Building News (19 January-15 June 1889): 224.
Geffroy, Gustave. "Le Statuaire Rodin." Les Lettres et les Arts (1 September 1889). In Vilain, Jacques. Claude Monet-Auguste Rodin: Centennaire de l'exposition de 1889. Exh. cat., Musée Rodin, Paris, 1989: 62.
Adam, Marcel. "Le Penseur." Gil Blas (7 July 1904).
Mourey, Gabriel. "Le Penseur de Rodin offert par souscription publique au peuple de Paris." Les Arts et la vie (May 1904): 267-270.
Grappe, Georges. Catalogue du Musée Rodin. Paris, 1927: 61.
Grappe, Georges. Catalogue du Musée Rodin. 5th ed. Paris, 1944: 24-25.
Gantner, Joseph. Rodin und Michelangelo. Vienna, 1953: 27-28.
Alhadeff, Albert. "Michelangelo and the Early Rodin." The Art Bulletin 4 (December 1963): 363-367.
Elsen, Albert E. Rodin. New York, 1963: 52-54.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 168
Spear, Athena Tacha. Rodin Sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1967: 52-53, 96-97.
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 148, repro.
Tancock, John. The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia, 1976: 111-121.
de Caso, Jacques, and Patricia B. Sanders. Rodin's Sculpture: A Critical Study of the Spreckels Collection. San Francisco, 1977: 131-138.
The Romantics to Rodin: French Nineteenth-Century Sculpture from North American Collections. Peter Fusco and H.W. Janson, eds. Exh. cat. LACMA; Minn. Inst. of Art; Indianapolis Mus. of Art; Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston. New York, 1980: 334-335.
Elsen, Albert E. In Rodin's Studio. Ithaca, New York, 1980: figs. 19-22, pls. 23, 24, 165-166.
Vincent, Clare. "Rodin at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: A History of the Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (Spring 1981): 4-5.
Schmoll, J.A. Rodin--Studien: Persönlichkeit--Werke--Wirkung--Bibliographie. Munich, 1983: 54-58, 66-67, 192-193, 278-282.
Elsen, Albert E. Rodin's Thinker and the Dilemmas of Modern Public Sculpture. New Haven and London, 1985.
Elsen, Albert E. The Gates of Hell by Auguste Rodin. Stanford, California, 1985: 56-57.
Jamison, Rosalyn Frankel. Rodin and Hugo: The Nineteenth-Century Theme of Genius in "The Gates" and Related Works. Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1986: 69-122.
Beausire, Alain. Quand Rodin Exposait. Paris, 1988: 99, 105, 156, 185, 195, 220, 242, 265, 266, 271, 286, 302, 307, 314, 315, 349, 366, 368.
Fonsmark, Anne-Birgitte. Rodin: La collection du Brasseur Carl Jacobsen à la Glyptothèque. Copenhagen, 1988: 73-78.
Vilain, Jacques. Claude Monet-Auguste Rodin: Centennaire de l'exposition de 1889. Exh. cat. Musée Rodin, Paris, 1989: 174-176.
Butler, Ruth. Rodin. The Shape of Genius. New Haven and London, 1993: 423-435.
Sculpture: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1994: 208, repro.
Kausch, Michael. Auguste Rodin: Eros und Leidenschaft. Exh. cat. Harrach Palace, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 1996: 166-168.
Porter, John R., and Yves Lacasse. Rodin à Quebec. Quebec, 1998: 78-83.
Butler, Ruth, and Suzanne Glover Lindsay, with Alison Luchs, Douglas Lewis, Cynthia J. Mills, and Jeffrey Weidman. European Sculpture of the Nineteenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 2000: 321-326, color repro.